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The next day you have even harder situation: to the hotel, where all the rooms are occupied arrives a bus with infinitely many new customers. How to deal with this one?

What would you do about \(10000\) new guests arriving to the full hotel?

Imagine you have now a general finite number of new guests arriving to the full hotel. What do you do?

Today you saw two infinitely long buses carrying infinitely many guests each arriving at the full hotel. How do you accommodate everyone?

Today we will solve some geometric problems using the triangle inequality. This is an inequality between the lengths of the sides of any triangle, or between the distances of any three points.

The shortest path between any two points \(A\) and \(B\) is a straight segment - every other path is longer. In particular, a path through another point, \(C\), is equal or longer. \[AC + BC \ge AB\] The triangle inequality says that the sum of lengths of any two sides of a triangle is always larger than the length of the third side. The inequality only becomes an equality if \(ABC\) is not actually a triangle and the point \(C\) lies on the segment from \(A\) to \(B\).

Even though it is a simple idea, it can be a really helpful tool in problem solving.

Let \(A=\{1,2,3\}\) and \(B=\{2,4\}\) be two sets containing natural numbers. Find the sets: \(A\cup B\), \(A\cap B\), \(A-B\), \(B-A\).

Let \(A=\{1,2,3,4,5\}\) and \(B=\{2,4,5,7\}\) be two sets containing natural numbers. Find the sets: \(A\cup B\), \(A\cap B\), \(A-B\), \(B-A\).

Given three sets \(A,B,C\). Prove that if we take a union \(A\cup B\) and intersect it with the set \(C\), we will get the same set as if we took a union of \(A\cap C\) and \(B\cap C\). Essentially, prove that \((A\cup B)\cap C = (A\cap C)\cup (B\cap C)\).

\(A,B\) and \(C\) are three sets. Prove that if we take an intersection \(A\cap B\) and unite it with the set \(C\), we will get the same set as if we took an intersection of two unions \(A\cup C\) and \(B\cup C\). Essentially, prove that \((A\cap B)\cup C = (A\cup C)\cap (B\cup C)\). Draw a Venn diagram for the set \((A\cap B)\cup C\).

Let \(A,B\) and \(C\) be three sets. Prove that if we take an intersection \(A\cap B\) and intersect it with the set \(C\), we will get the same set as if we took an intersection of \(A\) with \(B\cap C\). Essentially, prove that it does not matter where to put the brackets in \((A\cap B)\cap C = A\cap (B\cap C)\). Draw a Venn diagram for the set \(A\cap B\cap C\).
Prove the same for the union \((A\cup B)\cup C = A\cup (B\cup C) = A\cup B\cup C\).