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Found: 38

An \(8 \times 8\) chessboard has 30 diagonals total (15 in each direction). Is it possible to place several chess pieces on this chessboard in such a way that the total number of pieces on each diagonal would be odd?

Anna’s garden is a grid of \(n \times m\) squares. She wants to have trees in some of these squares, but she wants the total number of trees in each column and in each row to be an odd number (not necessarily the same, they just all need to be odd). Show that it is possible only if \(m\) and \(n\) are both even or both odd and calculate in how many different ways she can place the trees in the grid.

In any group of 10 children, out of a total of 60 pupils, there will be three who are in the same class. Will it always be the case that amongst the 60 pupils there will be: 1) 15 classmates? 2) 16 classmates?

One term a school ran 20 sessions of an after-school Astronomy Club. Exactly five pupils attended each session and no two students encountered one another over all of the sessions more than once. Prove that no fewer than 20 pupils attended the Astronomy Club at some point during the term.

There are a thousand tickets with numbers 000, 001, ..., 999 and a hundred boxes with the numbers 00, 01, ..., 99. A ticket is allowed to be dropped into a box if the number of the box can be obtained from the ticket number by erasing one of the digits. Is it possible to arrange all of the tickets into 50 boxes?

There is a group of 5 people: Alex, Beatrice, Victor, Gregory and Deborah. Each of them has one of the following codenames: V, W, X, Y, Z. We know that:

Alex is 1 year older than V,

Beatrice is 2 years older than W,

Victor is 3 years older than X,

Gregory is 4 years older than Y.

Who is older and by how much: Deborah or Z?

The total age of a group of 7 people is 332 years. Prove that it is possible to choose three members of this group so that the sum of their ages is no less than 142 years.

You are given 11 different natural numbers that are less than or equal to 20. Prove that it is always possible to choose two numbers where one is divisible by the other.

a) In a group of 4 people, who speak different languages, any three of them can communicate with one another; perhaps by one translating for two others. Prove that it is always possible to split them into pairs so that the two members of every pair have a common language.

b) The same, but for a group of 100 people.

c) The same, but for a group of 102 people.

In order to glaze 15 windows of different shapes and sizes, 15 pieces of glass are prepared exactly for the size of the windows (windows are such that each window should have one glass). The glazier, not knowing that the glass is specifically selected for the size of each window, works like this: he approaches a certain window and sorts out the unused glass until he finds one that is large enough (that is, either an exactly suitable piece or one from which the right size can be cut), if there is no such glass, he goes to the next window, and so on, until he has assessed each window. It is impossible to make glass from several parts. What is the maximum number of windows which can be left unglazed?